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Regulations on the use of
electric vehicles

voylt provides information about legal and general regulations regarding the use of electric vehicles. We deal with the definition of the vehicle classes applicable in Germany. We explain which aspects play a role in the homologation of a vehicle and what the vehicle identification number means. We also look at what is essential for using an electric vehicle in certain categories: the requirement to wear a helmet and the requirement to have insurance.

The topics at a glance:


Vehicle classes

Where can who drive what and what regulations apply to use?

The diagram is intended to give an impression of which vehicles you are allowed to drive on which roads and where you are not allowed to use them. Some vehicles require helmet use, while others recommend wearing a helmet for safety reasons. And do you need a driving license? And if so, which ones?

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What vehicle classes are there?
  • eKFV:Small electric vehicle up to 20 km/h, e.g. B. e-scooters

  • e bike (purely electric bike up to 25 km/h)

  • Pedelec (Support up to 25 km/h)

  • S-Pedelec (Support up to 45 km/h)

  • R-Pedelec (only for racetracks, not in public spaces)

  • L1e: light two-wheeled mopeds (Mopeds) up to 45 km/h, e.g. B. e-scooters

  • L2e: three-wheeled mopeds up to 45 km/h

  • L3e:Motorcycles up to 125 cubic centimeters / up to 11 kW / up to 110 km/h (driving license A1 / B196)

  • L3e: Motorcycles up to 35 kW (L3e-A1/A2; driving license A2) and over 35 kW (L3e-A3, driving license A)

  • L4e: Motorcycles over 35 kW (driving license A) with sidecar

  • L5e: three-wheeled motor vehicles over 50 cubic centimeters / up to 15 kW / over 45 km/h

  • L6e:light four-wheeled motor vehicles up to 45 km/h

  • L7e:heavier four-wheeled motor vehicle up to 15 kW / over 45 km/h, e.g. B. Quads

Vehicle identification number

What is a VIN (VIN) and why do you need it?

The vehicle identification number (FIN) – often also used in the English version VIN (vehicle identification number) – is documented in the vehicle documents. It has replaced the outdated form of the chassis number since 1981 and, under the new name, corresponds to the internationally uniform regulations. It consists of 17 digits, a combination of letters and numbers, which shows where the vehicle was manufactured, who the manufacturer is, the vehicle type, the model year and a consecutive vehicle numbering. The vehicle identification number can be used to clearly identify a vehicle; it is unique, essentially a vehicle's fingerprint. This is e.g. This is relevant, for example, in the event of theft or a service request, which is why this number should always be noted and available.


Literally translated, homologation means “it’s true” and is derived from the Greek word “homologeo”. In contrast to an individual approval, homologation refers to the entire series production of a specific vehicle type, i.e. to several vehicles. It is based on the ECE guidelines and is valid throughout Europe. The ECE homologation is carried out by a nationally responsible authority, e.g. the TÜV. This creates a detailed test report. Type approval is then issued based on one of the three framework directives 2002/24/EC, 2003/37/EC or 2007/46/EC and each vehicle in this series receives a COC (Certificate of Conformity). In a few cases, additional national approvals are necessary because ECE type approval is not recognized in these countries, although the national standards are largely based on the ECE regulations. The most serious exception is the United States of America, which does not recognize ECE regulations because they use their own standards (FMVSS). The ECE type approval process is very complex and therefore quite expensive. If a manufacturer only builds a small number of vehicles, it is sometimes worthwhile to go for an individual permit. This can also be issued for vehicles on which structural changes have been made that result in the homologation becoming invalid. Homologation should not be confused with ABE, the general operating permit. This is granted for vehicle parts, e.g. a brake disc, but not for an entire vehicle. The COC papers (Certificate of Conformity), which document the homologation, should always be handed over when purchasing the vehicle and a copy should also be carried with you when driving. This is the only way to prove that you have the necessary road approval at any time.

What should you pay attention to when using electric vehicles?

Basically, users of electric vehicles have to follow the same rules as drivers of combustion vehicles. Regulations on traffic rules and driving licenses apply, as do a few important rules of conduct that are relevant for use on the road.

Helmet requirement

When is it compulsory to wear a helmet?

First of all: It is always advisable to protect your head by wearing a helmet for your own safety. The risk of a dangerous injury can be significantly reduced, even in cases for which another road user is responsible. When does a helmet MUST be worn? The answer to this question is simple: If a vehicle's motorized design allows it to travel faster than 20 km/h, it is compulsory to wear a helmet. The legal regulation in force since October 1, 1985 can be found in the Road Traffic Regulations (StVO), §21a. This regulation only does not apply if a suitable seat belt is worn. Which helmet must be worn? The law requires a suitable protective helmet when using electric vehicles. This includes, for example, models that comply with the ECE standard 2205. These tested helmets with ECE approval are mandatory in most European countries. Only Germany was unable to commit to a uniform standard, so the recommendation of the ECE standard 2205 applies. The helmet must comply with the specifications of the ECE standard. It may not be possible to clearly clarify whether a helmet without an ECE standard is really suitable or not. In the event of an inspection, you should be able to prove that you meet the ECE helmet standard with a test mark, otherwise you risk a fine of 15 euros. When using S-Pedelecs, normal bicycle helmets do not guarantee adequate protection because they are usually only tested up to an impact speed of 19.5 km/h. There are now special S-Pedelec helmets that are certified up to 45 km/h, recognizable by the quality mark NTA-8776 (Dutch standard).

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Compulsory insurance

Is insurance necessary for the use of electric vehicles?

Depending on the type of electric vehicle, you may need liability insurance for your vehicle on German roads. This doesn't just apply toe-Acars, but also for electric two-wheelers. Such insurance always comes into play if your vehicle causes damage to others. However, the insurance requirement does not apply to pedelecs - i.e. electric bicycles that are supported by a motor up to a maximum speed of 25 km/h. For S-Pedelecs with motor support up to 45 km/h and e-bikes that work without pedaling, you need both a moped driving license and an insurance license plate. In road traffic, both types are classified as mopeds and not as bicycles. This also includes the requirement to wear a helmet. By the way, such liability insurance for an S-Pedelec will cost you on average between 35 and 50 euros per year. It's not just electric scooters (e-scooters) that require insurance. You also need one for mopeds (e-scooters) that go up to 45 km/hinsurance policynnsign.

How do you have to insure an electric scooter?

Insurance is required for all 2-wheelers that travel at a maximum speed of 45km/h. A moped, for which you also need a class AM driving license, is only permitted on the road with a valid insurance license plate. Quite apart from the fact that it is mandatory, it also makes a lot of sense to insure yourself against damage with electric scooter insurance.

What electric scooter insurance is there?

Almost all major insurers also offer electric scooter insurance. It is important to know that an insurance license plate for mopeds is only issued for 1 year. The electric scooter year always starts on March 1st, more or less when spring begins and two-wheel riding becomes more fun again. The electric scooter insurance is then valid until the end of February of the following year. However, most insurance companies offer a simple option for an extension. So you don't have to go through the process from scratch every year. The color of the license plate also changes every year, so it will be immediately noticeable if you haven't renewed your license plate. The colors blue, green and black alternate. Of course we would also think a voylt green would be nice.

How much does electric scooter insurance cost?

Of course, every insurer offers their own tariffs and your trusted insurance company may even offer a good deal at the start of the season. So keep your eyes and ears open if you're a bargain hunter. In general, however, it can be said that, depending on the tariff and the age of the vehicle owner, the cost is around €50 per year. In some cases, the insurance can cost up to €100, but such electric scooter insurance should also include partial insurance. Zurich Insurance offers a special oneE-Mobility protection for electric vehicles at. The amounts are due once for the entire traffic year. If you start the season later, you will of course not pay the full amount. Under normal circumstances, with a shortened electric scooter insurance policy, a proportionally reduced amount will be charged. Here, too, it is best to contact your trusted insurance company directly.

How quickly do I get electric scooter insurance?

The first rays of sun are appearing in the sky and you want to get on your moped and cruise through the city as quickly as possible? We can understand that! Fortunately, some insurance companies offer an online service that allows you to take out insurance quickly and easily. Your insurance number will then be sent to you by post and you will be mobile within a few days. Not fast enough? If you're a little lucky, you can take out electric scooter insurance directly from your insurance broker and take the license plate with you on the same day. It really doesn't get any faster. The license plate can also usually be installed within a few minutes. And then get on your moped and enjoy the sunshine!

One last detail at the end: Your electric scooter insurance will of course only protect you if the license plate is correctly attached to the vehicle. If you park your vehicle somewhere over the winter and take off the license plate, the vehicle will no longer be covered by insurance.

Do I need to take any precautions due to a potential fire hazard?

There is a persistent rumor that battery fires are more common in electric cars. Prominent examples such as a Tesla in 2017 and the approaching fire brigade and police fuel this perception in the truest sense of the word. But the statistics clearly show that electric cars do not catch fire more often after an accident. Every year there are more than 10,000 petrol engines burning because many liters of flammable liquid can escape after a violent crash.

Private charging stations, such as B. the local oneWallbox, may only be operated if they have been installed correctly by a specialist company. Safety is guaranteed here too. Charging e-cars via a standard household Schuko socket should only be done in exceptional cases. An increasingly better developed oneLadeinfrastructure now offers alternatives here.

Are electric two-wheeler batteries safe?

Every manufacturer ofAkkus gives safety instructions on correct charging. The battery itself is subject to strict safety standards. A feature of a high-quality battery is the ability to remove it so that it can be charged in a separate location. It is important that the charger is in perfect condition and should be checked regularly. Anyone who follows this will have a lot of fun using their electric vehicle.

Zurich Insurance, which we offer, offers very extensive e-mobility protectionHierintroduce.

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